What are some reasons or causes for knee pain?
KNEE MENISCUS (MEDIAL AND LATERAL)
ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT (ACL)
PATELLA (PATELLO FEMORAL PAIN – CHONDROMALCIA)
Arthroscopic debridement of torn meniscus or loose cartilage can provide pain relief for some patients but will not treat the arthritis pain.
Debridement is a measure to help delay more invasive surgery.
Microfracture is a procedure in which small holes are drilled into the areas where cartilage is damaged. These small holes provide blood and nutrients which can produce fibrocartilage, a material similar but less durable than normal hyaline cartilage.
Mosaicplasty/OATS are procedures in which pieces of cartilage from low stress locations of your knee are surgically removed and implanted in the areas of arthritis. The donor areas are harvested by using special drills which core out the healthy cartilage and bone. These bone plugs are then implanted into the region with arthritis.
Allograft transplantation is similar to mosaicplasty/OATS but uses cadaver tissue / bone plugs. The areas of arthritis in your knee are sized, and a matching area of the allograft (cadaver) cartilage and bone are harvested. The allograft tissue is then precisely fit into the area of your arthritis as a plug.
Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (ACI) is a 2 stage procedure in which a cartilage biopsy is taken from your knee during an initial arthroscopy and then is sent to a lab to be grown. The cartilage cells are grown in a medium and are later injected back into your area of arthritis. The cartilage cells are covered with a graft which protects the cartilage cells while they attach to the bone.
MEDIAL AND LATERAL COLLATERAL LIGAMENT TEARS (MCL & LCL)
- Grade 1: stretching of the ligament, little or no torn fibers, no laxity, no surgery needed.
- Grade 2: partial tear, mild laxity, most commonly treated w/ bracing
- Grade 3: complete tear, gross laxity, may require surgical repair or reconstruction
Physical exam and MRI studies are used to determine grade of sprain.